AskDefine | Define callipygian

Dictionary Definition

callipygian adj : pertaining to or having finely developed buttocks; "the quest for the callipygian ideal" [syn: callipygous]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

(callipygos), from (calli-) "beautiful" + (pygē) "buttocks".

Adjective

  1. Having beautifully shaped buttocks.
    I watched the callipygian barmaids longingly.

Synonyms

See also

Translations

having beautifully shaped buttocks

Extensive Definition

The Callipygian Venus or Venus Kallipygos, ( Aphrodite Kallipygos, "Aphrodite of the Beautiful Buttocks"), is a type of nude female statue of the Hellenistic era. It depicts a partially-draped woman, raising her light peplos to uncover her hips and buttocks, and looking back and down over her shoulder, perhaps to evaluate them.

Identification

In the 18th and 19th centuries the statue was thought to illustrate a story from classical antiquity of two girls in Syracuse who were trying to decide which of them had the more shapely buttocks. The story is recorded in Athenaeus' Deipnosophists 12.554 c-e. and goes as follows:
"The people of those days were so attached to their sensual pleasures that they even went so far as to dedicate a temple to Aphrodite of the Beautiful Buttocks, for the following reason. Once upon a time a farmer had two beautiful daughters. One day these girls, getting into a dispute as to which one had a more beautiful backside, went out onto the public street. And by chance a young man was passing by, the son of a rich old man. They showed themselves to him, and when he saw them he voted in favor of the older girl. And in fact, falling in love with her, when he got back to town, he took to his bed and told his younger brother everything that had happened. And the younger brother also went to the country and saw the girls, and he fell in love with the other daughter. And so when the boys' father tried to get them to marry someone of the upper classes, he couldn't persuade his sons, and so he brought the girls in from the country, with their father's permission, and married them to his sons. And so these girls were called fair-buttocked by the citizens, as Cercidas of Megalopolis says in his Iambic Verses: "There was a pair of beautiful-buttocked girls in Syracuse." And so these girls, when they got wealthy and famous, founded a temple of Aphrodite and called the goddess the Fair-buttocked , as Archelaus tells us in his Iambic Verses."
The fact that there was a religious cult of Aphrodite Kallipygos at Syracuse is also mentioned by the Christian author Clement of Alexandria in a list of erotic manifestations of pagan religion. Clement cites the poet Nicander of Colophon, and generously quotes the alternative term (kalligloutos, "with a beautiful bottom") that Nicander used.

Ancient examples

The best known example is a small Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic original. It was found at Rome.It was on show in the Palazzo Farnese and thus joined the Farnese collection when that palace was acquired. With that collection it found its way to Naples in 1802. It was then considered dangerously erotic, on the level of pornography (the more so for being partially draped rather than entirely nude like the Venus de Medici) and was included amongst other such material in the Secret Cabinet.
In 1836, Famin called it a "charming statuette" but noted that it was:
''"...placed in a reserved hall, where the curious are only introduced under the surveillance of a guardian, though even this precaution has not prevented the rounded forms which won for the goddess the name of Callipyge, from being covered with a dark tint, which betrays the profane kisses that fanatic admirers have every day impressed there. We ourselves knew a young German tourist smitten with a mad passion for this voluptuous marble; and the commiseration his state of mind inspired set aside all idea of ridicule."''
It is currently on display at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale.

Modern copies

A marble copy by Clérion (1686) was sent to Versailles. Another copy was made by François Barois during his residence at the French Academy in Rome, 1683-86. It was sent to Versailles, then to Marly-le-Roi in 1695, where it was provided with additional marble draperies by Jean Thierry, not to offend an increasingly prudish public taste; it remained at Marly until the Revolution, when it found it way to the Jardin des Tuileries
Augustus the Strong ordered a copy, which was executed by Pierre de l’Estache in Rome between 1722-23, for the Grosser Garten, Dresden. However it was destroyed in 1945 (Desmas 2002).

Modern appreciation

The 19th century identification was popularised by the 20th century lyrics of the Frenchman Georges Brassens, particularly an extract from La Fontaine which paraphrases Athenaeus's account and ends:

See also

Notes

References

  • Francis Haskell and Nicholas Penny, 1984. Taste and the Antique Cat. 86
  • Laurentino García y García, Luciana Jacobelli, Louis Barré, 2001. Museo Segreto. With a Facsimile edition of Herculanum et Pompéi. Recueil général des peintures, bronzes, mosaïques... (1877). (Pompei: Marius Edizioni) [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2003/2003-07-38.html Eric M. Moormann, On-line Bryn Mawr Classical Review 20}
  • Dericksen Brinkerhoff, review of Aphrodite Kallipygos by Gosta Saflund and Peter M. Fraser - American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 69, No. 1 (Jan., 1965), pp. 78-79
callipygian in Breton: Venus Kallipygos
callipygian in German: Aphrodite Kallipygos
callipygian in French: Vénus callipyge
callipygian in Russian: Венера Каллипига
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